Minnesota Catocala

Catocala lacrymosa, Minnesota, courtesy of Tom Middagh.

The following information (list) is taken from sightings provided by Tom Middagh (TM). Tom has sent me many images and much data, especially for Worthington, Nobles County, Michigan.

I have added two species from eastern North Dakota, courtesy of Gerald Fauskes (GF), and I (Wiliam Oehlke) have added many other species which I feel might be present (WO).

Lack of reporting for a particular county (county lists still to be developed) does not indicate the species does not fly there. Look at neighbouring counties or the entire Minnesota list to help identify a species.

I have indicated maximum and minimum known wingspans for each species and have put the different species into respective columns according to my interpretation of the hindwing colour. Framed specimens fade considerably when exposed to light. What one person sees as orange another may see as yellow! There is also some variation between live individuals.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

Visit Minnesota Sphingidae: Hawk Moths/Sphinx Moths.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various Catocala species.

Catocala luciana, Worthington, Nobles County, Minnesota,
57mm, August 9, 2008, courtesy of Tom Middaugh.

Catocala luciana (verso), Worthington, Nobles County, Minnesota,
57mm, August 9, 2008, courtesy of Tom Middaugh.

The C. luciana depicted from Nobles County at 57mm wingspan is either a runt or stated wingspan of 70-80mm is in error.

Please send sightings, preferably with images, to Bill Oehlke.

abbreviatella LG
amica 35-40, TM
antinympha 45-55, TM
badia coelebs
blandula 40-50, WO
nuptialis 40-50, TM
clintoni 45-55, WO
crataegi 40-50, WO
gracilis 40-45, WO
lineella yes
minuta 35-45, TM
mira 40-50, WO/TM
praeclara 40-50, WO
similis 35-45, WO
sordida 37-45, WO
whitneyi 45-50, TM

grynea 40-50, TM
micronympha 35-50, WO
habilis yes
neogama 70-85, TM
piatrix 68-84, WO
nebulosa 75-86, TM
subnata 75-90, WO

ilia 65-82, TM
innubens 55-72, TM
luciana 70-80, WO/TM
parta 70-85, TM
ultronia 50-63, TM
unijuga 70-90, TM

briseis 60-70, TM
meskei 65-75, GF/TM
semirelicta 65-75, WO

amatrix 75-95, TM
coccinata 57-70, GF

cara 70-85, TM
concumbens 60-75, TM

epione 55-65, TM
insolabilis 65-75, WO
judith 45-55, WO
lacrymosa 60-82, TM
luctuosa ?
maestosa 78-98, TM
retecta 60-75, WO
vidua 70-80, WO

cerogama 70-80, TM
relicta 70-80, TM

If you have additional sightings to add to the list or high quality images of moths or larvae, please forward same to oehlkew@islandtelecom.com.

Images and/or information will be credited to photographer/source.

Here is the complete list that Tom Middagh sent me for Minnesota.

amatrix Nobles September 3, 1998
amatrix Nobles August 24, 1983
amatrix Nobles August 23, 1983
amatrix Nobles August 26, 1982
amatrix Nobles August 24, 1988
amatrix Nobles August 30, 1979
amatrix Nobles August 20, 1991
amatrix Nobles August 18, 1982
unijuga Nobles September 5, 1980
cara Nobles August 31, 1991
cara Wright September 7, 1979
cara Nobles August 24, 1983
cara Murray September 1, 1980
amatrix Nobles August 24, 1991
unijuga Nobles July 22, 1992
unijuga Nobles August 26, 1982
unijuga Nobles August 13, 1980
maestosa Nobles September 10, 1996
ilia Nobles August 7, 1992
ilia Nobles July 31, 1986
ilia Nobles July 6, 1994
briseis Sherburne August 9, 1982
epione Nobles July 6, 1994
lacrymosa? Nobles July 31, 1986
relicta Nobles September 10, 1988
relicta Nobles August 22, 1994
relicta Nobles August 23, 1994
neogama Nobles August 15, 1991
neogama Nobles August 24, 1983
nuptialis Nobles, July 20, 2008
cerogama Clearwater August 6, 1980
concumbens Clearwater August 6, 1980
parta Nobles August 22, 1991
parta Nobles August 23, 1991
parta Nobles July 20, 1980
parta Nobles September 5, 1980
parta Nobles August 19, 1982
ultronia Nobles July 30, 1992
ultronia Nobles August 7, 1998
ultronia Nobles August 1, 1982
antinympha Pine August 24, 1978
grynea Nobles August 5, 1985
grynea Nobles August 1, 1982
grynea Nobles August 16, 1980
minuta Nobles July 21, 1983
amica Jackson July 20, 1977
whitneyi Nobles July 7, 1994
innubens Nobles July 28, 1997
innubens Nobles July 30, 1985
mira Nobles July 24, 2008
luciana Nobles August 9, 2008
nebulosa Nobles August 19, 2008
meskei Nobles September 20, 2008
semirelicta Nobles september 21, 2009

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-45mm

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm
The black postmedian band is absent from the dorsal (upper) surface of the hindwing, but it is present on the ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and to bait.

Catocala amica lineella is now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella.
Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; wingspan: 35-40mm. This species is without hw marginal black band. Fw subreniform spot is pale and boldy outlined with black. There is similar light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line, and just between subreniform spot and am line there is similarly coloured light patch paralleling am lne. The reniform spot is dark, less distinct and in a generally darker area.

** 8874 Catocala minuta TM; Little Underwing, 35-45mm; Fw grey-brown, greatly widened, white, st line (near costa only). Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band in complete loop, brown scaling along im. "eureka" Schwarz: blackish area between am,pm lines; "hiseri" Cassino: dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula" Hulst: blackish patch in basal area from costa to im; "obliterata" Schwarz: melanic form, almost completely black fw; "parvula" W. H. Edwards: broad dark patch along fw i. m..

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot projects much beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to subreniform line. Many specimens have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm/ am lines near midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length.

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, wingspan: 37-45mm: Fw is lighter along costa and darker along inner margin. Dark medial lines are especially evident through lighter shades near costa. Outer black band of the hindwing is broken near the anal angle. I made the determination on the moth to the left based on dark scaling along the inner margin limited to median area and submarginal "teeth" relatively short and blunt. Tim Dyson image.

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has a forewing that is mostly black. Leroy Simon image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.
Joe Garris image.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).

Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings.

Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.

** 8864 Catocala grynea TM; Woody Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm

The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint.
Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color.
Tim Dyson image.

Catocala grynea recto and verso, Worthington, Nobles County, August 9, 2009, Tom Middagh.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Fw pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line. There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area. Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Upper of two larger pml teeth is longer, wider than lower tooth. Note double, white filled amls. Lighter, subcircular patch, outlined in black, brown on lower thorax.

** 8867 Catocala blandula WO; Charming Underwing; 40-50mm. Fw pale basal area distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw has dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. There is also considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. A light area runs obliquely from the costa to the subreniform spot. The hindwing is deep orange and has a complete inner black band. The outer black band is usually but not always unbroken.

Lynn Scott image.

Catocala mira WO; Wonderful Underwing; 40-50mm. Fw pale basal area distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi & blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along inner margin between antemedial and postmedial lines. Hw deep orange with complete inner black band. Outer black band is unbroken Tim Dyson image.

** 8858 Catocala crataegi WO; Hawthorn Underwing; 40-50mm. Determination is based on dark (black) shading in forewing basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle and brown shading beyond postmedial line. There is also a definite greenish cast to median area. The lower wing has the outer black band, broken near the anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula. Tim Dyson image.

** 8841 Catocala abbreviatella; Abbreviated Underwing; 40-50mm. Fw uniformly colored with narrow black lines on anterior half. Brown reniform spot ringed with black. Hw outer black band abbreviated and then continued with dot. Inner black band terminates well before im. Similar species: C. nuptialis solid black reniform spot. C. whitneyi broad dark triangles mid fw.

** 8858 Catocala nuptialis TM; Married Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm

The reniform spot is very dark, black or almost black on an otherwise faintly marked, almost uniformly grey forewing. The outer black margin of the hindwing is unbroken, but is indented near the anal angle.
Jim Vargo image.

** 8843 whitneyi TM; Whitney's Underwing; 43-50mm. Catocala whitneyi is similar to abbreviatella Grote, and nuptialis Walker, but generally flies later in the season where the species overlap. The two black wedges/triangles on the forewing, one over the reniform spot and the other just outside the antemedial line, distinguish whitneyi. Gerald Fauske image.

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; wingspan 43-50mm.

There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

** 8775 antinympha TM; Sweetfern Underwing; 45-55mm. The very dark grey, almost black, forewing ground colour distinguishes antinympha. There is some brown shading in the subreniform spot and also just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing is amber to pale orange. There is also the form multoconspicua Reiff, 1919 with a pale, almost white subreniform spot.
Tim Dyson image.

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.

The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.

Vernon Brou image.

** 8776 badia coelebs; Old Maid Underwing, wingspan 54-56mm.: The gray region from the forewing pm line to the outer margin readily distinguishes this species. The fringe is gray on the lower wing from the brief orange dash at the hindwing apex to the anal angle.

Tim Dyson image. maybe

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing. The head and collar and abdomen are brown while the thorax is grey. The am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. The black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and the relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy, July 28, Calumet County, Wisconsin.

#8778 Catocala habilis; wingspan: 55-65mm
Large "M" on thorax, "pork chop" shaped, light coloured subreniform spot very dark in constriction at juncture with pml. Pml narrow, dark, distinct, outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown scales, then broader suffusion of white scales up to very regular dentation of sbtml line. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange-salmon scales into hw fringes. Large reniform spot has brown center, faintly edged in black, then white, then black again.

#8817 briseis TM; Briseis Underwing; 60-70mm; Fws predominantly mottled dark-grey-brown with some lighter areas 1) between postmedial & subterminal lines, 2) at base of am & pm lines along inner margin, 3) over subreniform spot running diagonally toward costa. Pm lines do not have greatly elongated and sharly pointed "teeth" near apex. Hw fringe white & unbroken, inner black band (fairly even) reaches inner margin. Tim Dyson image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens TM; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing is mottled with white, grey and brown, and subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.

Jim Vargo image.

Catocala innubens, Worthington, Nobles County, July 10, 2012, Tom Middaugh.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata TM; Scarlet; 57-70mm. Usually diffuse basal & anal dashes on otherwise light grey, mottled forewing. Hw fringe white (often with some salmon scaling), heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" much reduced & quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot tends be to light, often with greenish cast. Joe Garris image.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened antemedial, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.

** 8773 Catocala epione TM; Epione Underwing; 55-65mm. The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.

The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.

John Himmelman image.

Catocala retecta WO; 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated & open subreniform spot interrupting dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown & there is brown area just below costa running to the inner margin just outside the pm line. The off-white hindwing fringe is only lightly checked along the wing veins. Joe Garris image.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. The forewing is highly variable with a mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line) and dark grey scaling. There are usually whitish crescents, along the inner margin at the base of the antemedial and postmedial lines.

The hindwings are black with white checkered fringe, turning black near the anal angle. There are several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form evelina there is a wide black band along the forewing inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC. In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; TP. Form "zelica", has black basal patch and strong black subterminal line.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis WO; Inconsolable; 65-75mm. The forewing is light grey with blackish shading along the inner margin. The antemedial and postmedial lines are thin. The hindwing fringe is very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward the apex. The ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in the basal area.
Vernon A. Brou image.

** 8792 Catocala vidua WO; Widow; 70-80mm.> Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguished dark arc running through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to inner margin. Am line thick & black in upper half. Reniform spot consists of two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, only lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa TM; Sad Underwing; 78-98mm. Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have the dark arc from the costa, above the reniform spot, to the outer margin just below the apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks the dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to the inner margin. The reniform spot is brown and there is brown shading just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing fringe is white, narrow and heavily barred.

Large Black Underwings (Banded): Wingspans: 70-80mm

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws.
Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales.

Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form clara: basal and subterminal areas predominantly white.

Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire forewing. Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October, poplars and willows

Catocala relicta, Robbinsdale, Hennepin County, September 2, 2011, Erich Moeller

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm. Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark and has elongate pair of projections. Pm and am lines meet inner margin in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped a bit like an arrowhead with point toward body. Hws are distinctive. Jean-Benoît Duval image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.

The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8822 meskei TM; Meske's Underwing; 65-75mm. Fws less distinctly marked compared to unijuga, some red-orange at the hindwing apex and just inside the fringe along the outer margin in meskei that is lacking in unijuga. Fw subreniform spot is opened or connected to the postmedian line. The hindwing postmedian band nearly straight, turned in and tapering near anal angle. Tim Dyson image.

** 8821 semirelicta; Semirelict Underwing; 65-75mm. Fw ground colour is white with dark lines and shadings. Diffuse dark bar runs from center of basal area to outer margin a few mm above anal angle. Note regular dentation of st line. Inner black bar on hw usually terminates well before the inner margin. The form "atala" has a forewing that is uniformly grey. Unijuga is usually larger and has less contrasting black lines. The inner black bar on unijuga usually reaches the inner margin. Tim Dyson image.

Catocla semirelicta, Worthingon, Nobles County, september 21, 2009, Tom Middagh.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; mm; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; reniform spot brown center outlined in black , off white and black again; subreniform, large, pale brown, closed. Pm line wit htwo elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded and shorter. HW with dark scaling/hairs in basal median area along im

** 8808 luciana; Luciana Underwing; 70-80mm. Luciana has pale grey brown fw with very distinct am & pm lines. Subreniform spot has elongated narrow "tail" that seems to open through postmedial line. Hw inner black band does not reach inner margin. Fringe is checked and paler (almost yellow) than salmon ground colour.

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in a dark area outside the reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange on rest of wing.

Catocala junctura; Joined Underwing; 67-85mm. Fw is usually dark brownish-gray to evenly powdered blue-grey w/o significant markings. Doubled reniform spot often obscure. Thin, slightly darker am and pm lines run from costa to im, not widely spaced at im. Hw salmon/ orange-pink, narrow inner black band turns in sharply, does not meet dark-haired im.

** 8805 unijuga; Once-married; 70-90mm. Unijuga has fairly wide black hw inner band (almost reaching inner margin), dark hairs in basal-median area along hw im; very distinctive patterning in forewing. Meskei tend to have narrower band and dustier (less distinct) looking fw. Semirelicta tend to have inner bands that terminate well before inner margins. Also note the very white fringe on both the forewings and hindwings. Carroll Rudy image.

Catocala unijuga, Worthington, Nobles County, September 16-19, Tom Middaugh

** 8806 Catocala parta; Mother Underwing, wingspan: 70-85mm. The black dashes in the basal, subapical and anal areas help to identify this species. The hindwings may be yellow to yellowish-orange but more often are salmon-red. Note the face-head-like markings on the thorax. In the hindwing, the first (nearest the apex) black protrusion into the white fringe is "noticeably" larger than the others.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

Catocala nebulosa; Moths have prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at antemedial line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. The anal angle also has the darker brown scaling. The pm line is distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between the two. It meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot is large and connects to the pm line via a thin line.

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8833 concumbens Sleepy Underwing or Pink Underwing; 60-75mm. This brown thoracic collar is quite evident in this image as is the interruption in the pm line by the open subreniform spot. The white hindwing fringe is only lightly checked on the wing veins. The vibrant pink bans are distinct in colour and also in their relatively smooth contour.

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; 70-85mm. Deep maroon almost purple cast to forewings, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am & pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. The two upper "teeth" on the pm line are thin and long. The hindwing bands are pink. There is heavy black checking on the off-white hindwing fringe. The relatively thick black median band of the hindwing almost reaches the inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs.
Tim Dyson image.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm). Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (to the left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. The melanic form hesseli is very dark and displays dark basal hairs in the hindwing.

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 37–83 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks

Enjoy some of nature's wonderments, giant silk moth cocoons. These cocoons are for sale winter and fall. Beautiful Saturniidae moths will emerge the following spring and summer. Read Actias luna rearing article. Additional online help available.

Eggs of many North American Saturniidae species are offered during the spring and summer. Occasionally summer Actias luna and summer Antheraea polyphemus cocoons are available. Shipping to US destinations is done from within the US.

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