Updated as per Wayne A. Miller's paper "Catocala (Noctuidae) Species taken in Clay County, Tennessee", October 2008, via Harry D. King.
Updated as per Catocala (Noctuidae) Species Taken in Clay County, Tennessee, October 5-6, 2008, Wayne A. Miller, via Harry King
Updated as per "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks; March 21, 2010
Updated as per personal communication with Ken Childs (live lacrymosa, form paulina); October 13, 2011
Updated as per personal communication with Tom Payne; January 25, 2014

Tennessee Catocala

Catocala illecta Woodlawn, Montgomery County, Tennessee,
taken at light, June 20, 2008, courtesy of Tom Payne.

This page is inspired by and dedicated to Tom Payne of Montgomery County, Tennessee. Tom has sent many images and much data regarding the Catocala species he has encountered in his area.

Tom writes, "Last year I responded to one of Bill Garthe's posts on collecting Catocalas. Well, he actually got me hooked on these fabulous moths, and I had lots of fun collecting them, whether I was blacklighting, or sugaring. It seemed like I was always discovering a different species. It was truly exciting, because I never knew what I was going to find each time."

I, Bill Oehlke, also wish to acknowledge the checklist provided online for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Tom's images, the data from the park, and general knowledge of Catocala habitat and range allow me to assemble this tentative pictoral checklist for Tennessee. There may be omissions and some erroneous inclusions, but I believe the checklist will be useful in helping people identify the Catocala species they are likely to encounter in Tennessee.

Please send electronic images with data to Bill Oehlke to help increase the accuracy of this page.

A thanks also goes to Bill Garthe who inspired Tom. Bill Garthe has sent images and data for Illinois, primarily for La Salle County.

I also am indebted to Larry Gall of Connecticut who has helped me immensely over the years with troublesome identifications.

Those species followed by GSMNP are confirmed for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and those species followed by TP are confirmed by Tom Payne.

In most cases, the links to the individual species will provide a series of images, with ranges, flight seasons and sometimes larval images.

Refer to Identification Keys image and terminology to better understand the descriptions.

Visit Tennessee Sphingidae: Hawk Moths/Sphinx Moths.

Shortly after posting this page, Harry King sent me a copy of a paper written by Wayne A. Miller (WAM). I have indicated Wayne's data and have added Catocala cara carissima and Catocala serena to the list based on Wayne's report. Collection took place from June 20 - August 22, during the years 1975-76. Four collecting methods were utilized:
bait;
175 watt Mercury Vapour light with 15 watt flourescent black light;
150 watt incandescent light;
tree beating.

Wayne indicates more species might have been collected earlier or later in the season. Some species seem to have specific flight times, and those species which do not fly until after 2:00 am in the morning may escape most collector's eyes.

Forty-six species have been confirmed by one or more of the references above. I have added many undocumented species to the pictoral list, based on general range statements. I have also added a provisional list, not pictured, at the bottom of the list.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

In early October of 2011, Ken Childs sent me an image of a live Catocala lacrymosa form paulina. I did not have the form depicted on this page, and "paulina" is so distinct that Ken's image had me stumped regarding determination. Fortunately Jason Roberts suggested lacrymosa, form paulina; I have subsequently added the different forms of lacrymosa (missing "zelica") to this listing, and to checklists for other states where there are known populations of lacrymosa.


Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 30-45mm

**8878 Catocala alabamae; Alabama Underwing; 30-40mm; Uniform greenish-grey forewing may have thin but dark (contrasting) medial lines or they may be nearly absent (titania); alabamae often displays dash in median/anal angle area, missing or nearly absent in titania. Brown shading between pmline and sbtrmnl line. Hw inner black band thin, outer band thick, truncated before being followed by large black dot. Early flight season.

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm
The black postmedian band is absent from the dorsal (upper) surface of the hindwing, but it is present on the ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and to bait.

Catocala amica lineella is now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella.
Maurice Bottos image.

Catocala amica, Clay County, June 26-August2, Wayne A. Miller

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; 35-40mm; Lacks hw marginal black band. Fw subreniform spot pale, boldy outlined with black. Similar light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line. Just between sbrnfrm spot and am line is similarly coloured light patch paralleling am lne. Reniform spot dark, less distinct,i n generally darker area. Form "curvifascia" has diffuse black-brown arc from mid costa region toward mid outer margin.

Catocala jair; 35-40mm. The moth is hard to distinguish from amica, but jair has broader, blunter forewings than amica and the post medial line of jair is straighter (much less dentate) than that of amica. The hindwings of both species seem identical.

** 8874 Catocala minuta TM; Little Underwing, 35-45mm; Fw grey-brown, greatly widened, white, st line (near costa only). Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band in complete loop, brown scaling along im. "eureka" Schwarz: blackish area between am,pm lines; "hiseri" Cassino: dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula" Hulst: blackish patch in basal area from costa to im; "obliterata" Schwarz: melanic form, almost completely black fw; "parvula" W. H. Edwards: broad dark patch along fw i. m..

Catocala minuta, Clay County, June 23 - June 27, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, wingspan: 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot projects much beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to subreniform line. Many specimens have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm/ am lines near midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length.

Catocala similis, Clay County, June 26, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, wingspan: 37-45mm: Fw is lighter along costa and darker along inner margin. Dark medial lines are especially evident through lighter shades near costa. Outer black band of the hindwing is broken near the anal angle. I made the determination on the moth to the left based on dark scaling along the inner margin limited to median area and submarginal "teeth" relatively short and blunt. Tim Dyson image.

dulciola; Quiet/Sweet Underwing, wingspan: 40-45mm; WO??;

A double, black, almost smooth antemedial line (inner line broken only near the costa) with other lines obscure distinguishes dulciola. There is also a dark basal dash on an otherwise plain, light grey forewing. generally more northerly species

Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has a forewing that is mostly black.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings. Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.

Catocala micronympha, Clay County, June 22 - July 16, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, (35-50mm); GSMNP/WAM; Fw highly variable; several different forms: "sancta" Hulst: typical form, forewings with white ground colour, sharply contrasting black lines, markings. Brown shading between pm and sbtrmnl lines; "cordelia" H. Edwards: coloured as above but markings are faint; "pulverulenta" Brower has grey-green forewings with faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri" Muller: melanic form, fws dark green, almost black. Hw has separate anal spot; outer band ends with straight cut.

Catocala amica, Clay County, June 26-August2, Wayne A. Miller

messalina, Messalina Underwing, (40-45mm); WO?;
Fw: plain, dull, grey-green, darkening toward the outer margin.
Hw: like that of the false underwing, having no inner black band. The outer band is quite wide.

C. messalina flies in evergreen oak habitats.

** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, (40-50mm); WO?/WAM
The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint.
Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color.

Catocala grynea, Clay County, June 23 - July 17, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, (40-50mm); The forewing is a pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line.
There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area.
Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Tim Dyson image.

** 8867 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, (40-50mm); GSMNP; Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown), crataegi (black). Fw has dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. Considerable brown in sbtrmnl area, subreniform spot very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Hw deep orange, has complete inner black band. Outer black band unbroken.

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown); crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi/ blandula. Considerable brown in sbtrmnl area; subreniform spot very conspicuous, usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to sbrnfrm spot. Noticeable space along i. m. between am and pm lines. Hw deep orange, complete inner black band. Outer black band is unbroken

** 8858 Catocala crataegi Hawthorn Underwing; 40-50mm; WO? Determination based on dark (black) shading in fw basal area continuing along i. m. to anal angle and brown shading beyond pm line. There is also a definite greenish cast to median area. Hw: outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala pretiosa Precious Underwing; 40-50mm; WO?; Quite similar to crataegi and mira, but pretiosa has considerable creamy white colouration in median area. Lower portion of basal area also light, not dark as in crataegi. Inner black band of hw forms loop, and outer band is broken (not complete as in mira, followed by dot tapering to anal angle.

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; wingspan 43-50mm.

There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing; 45-55mm; WO?/ WAM The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.

Vernon Brou image.

Catocala clintoni, Clay County, June 23 - June 28, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8772 gracilis; Graceful Underwing, 40-45mm; GSMNP/WAM;

Gracilis closely resembles sordida but the hindwing loop is not complete in gracilis as it is in sordida. Gracilis also tends to have a darker inner margin and there is frequently (99% of the time, Dale Schweitzer, via Joe Garris), but not always, a basal dash. Sordida never has the basal dash.

Catocala gracilis, Clay County, July 12, Wayne A. Miller.

whitneyi; Whitney's Underwing, 43-50mm; whitneyi; Similar to abbreviatella Grote, and nuptialis Walker, but generally flies later in season where species overlap. Two black wedges/triangles on fw, one over reniform spot and other just outside antemedial line, distinguish whitneyi. questionable, generally more westerly species


Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

Catocala ultronia lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
June 30, 2008, courtesy of Tom Payne.
Catocala ultronia, Clay County, June 23 - August 3, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing. WAM. Head & collar & abdomen are brown while thorax is grey. Am & pm lines are thin, very dark, distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey fw. Black marginal band of lower wings is indented at center, relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels indentation. Basal hairs are brown.

#8778 Catocala habilis; 55-65mm; WO?/WAM Note large "M" on thorax and "pork chop" shaped, light-coloured surnfrm spot becoming very dark in its constriction at juncture with pm line. Pm line: narrow, dark, distinct; outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown, then another broader suffusion of white scales up to very regular dentation of sbtrmnl line. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange to salmon scales into hw fringes. Large reniform spot: brown center, faintly edged with black, then white, then black again.

Catocala habilis, Clay County, July 31 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, is smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i. m. and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm. In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background. Dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

Catocala palaeogama, net captured by day, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
July 15, 2007, courtesy of Tom Payne.
Catocala palaeogama, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller

Catocala delilah; 58-65; The forewing is gray-brown with prominent black antemedial and postmedial lines. The hindwing is yellow-orange, with a narrow inner black band which reaches the inner margin. There is a large yellow spot at the apex, and the fringe is faintly barred. The underside of the wings is deep yellow with black bands.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; Fw: mottled with white, grey, brown, and sbrnfrm spot tends to be lighter in colour, sometimes obscured by indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.

Jim Vargo image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

Catocala innubens, form scintillans, lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
July 12, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala innubens, lights, Clarksville, Montgomery County,
July 2, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala innubens, Clay County, July 4 - August 7, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm; GSMNP/WAM; Usually diffuse basal, anal dashes on otherwise light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe: white (often with some salmon scaling), heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" is much reduced, quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot tends be to light, often with greenish cast.

Catocala coccinata, Clay County, June 23- June 27, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8840 Catocala illecta; Magdalen Underwing, 60-70mm TP/WAM; The forewing pattern and colouration is much like that of concumbens, pale grey with faint black lines.
Hindwings are light yellow and the irregular inner black band terminates well before the inner margin. James K. Adams image.

Catocala illecta, lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
June 20, 2008, courtesy of Tom Payne. Catocala illecta, Clay County, June 24 - June 28, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8772 Catocala consors WO; Consort, wingspan: 70mm plus. Fw: irregular am/pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside reniform and sbrnfrm spots. Orange-yellow hindwing pm band tends to be narrow and irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes band is wider and slightly less irregular.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

Catocala species can be very difficult to identify. I have had a couple of people tell me they stopped collecting moths of this genus because they were too frustrated with the identification problems.

Many people who do not collect the moths do enjoy photographing them. I respect their decisions not to kill the moths, and I very much appreciate the many beautiful photos sent for id purposes.

Without wingspans or full view of the hindwings, identification can be even more difficult so I have put together a chart to help me and others identify specimens when only a view of the forewings is available and no size is indicated. The chart will probably only provide a best guess scenario in many cases.

miranda, Miranda Underwing; 37-45mm; WO?/WAM; Fw: plain pale grey with very light, fine black lines, darker, wider near costa. Hw: black with white fringe at apex, turning to grey along outer margin. Miranda: smaller than look-alike orba; miranda has dark bar just above inner margin in median area, projecting toward anal angle.

Catocala miranda, Clay County, June 26, Wayne A. Miller.

orba, Orba Underwing; 40-45mm; WO?; Fw: uniform grey with light lines and poorly defined spots. Hw underside completely black. Hw fringe is unbroken, slightly off white, somewhat grey. Note absence of any dark bar in median-subterminal area, paralleling inner margin, near anal angle.

andromedae, Gloomy Underwing; 40-50mm; GSMNP/WAM; Black hw; dark grey hw fringe, coupled with dark fw inner margin help to identify this species. Moths rest with heads pointing downwards. Very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining sbrnfrm spot to midpoint of am line. "Tteeth" of pm line short, blunt, outwardly edged with white. Sbtrmnl line also outwardly edged with white.

Catocala andromedae, Clay County, June 23 - July 15, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; WAM; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened antemedial, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.


Catocala judith, Clay County, June 25 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8782 Catocala flebilis ; Mournful, 54-65mm; TP/WAM: Diffuse black band running from basal area to outer margin just below apex, interrupted by pale grey sbrnfrm spot. Reniform spot filled with brown; additional brown outside pm line. No anal dash as there is in angusi. Hws: white fringe.

Catocala flebilis, September 20, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala flebilis, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8773 Catocala epione ; Epione Underwing, 55-65mm; TP/WAM: The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.

The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.

Catocala epione, lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
June 29, 2008, Tom Payne
Catocala epione, Clay County, June 21 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala residua; Residua Underwing, (wingspan: 60-73mm), distinguished from Catocala obscura by grey hw fringe of residua. Catocala obscura: white to off-white fringe; tends to be less common in northern portions of range. Fw sbtrmnl line/area of Catocala residua tends to be pale as is its open, elongated sbrnfrm spot. Like C. obscura, otherwise devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through reniform spot to o. m. just below apex.

Catocala residua, Clay County, July 4 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala retecta; wingspan: 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated, open sbrnfrm spot which interrupts dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown; brown area just below costa running to i. m. just outside pm line. Off-white hw fringe, lightly checked along wing veins.


Catocala retecta, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, August 24, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala retecta, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala luctuosa; 70mm;; WAM; Light grey (yellowish tint) fw clearly marked with basal dash continuing with another dash through am line, then another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. "Teeth" in fw pm line: elongated, dark, continuing a dark dar emanating from outer margin just below apex.


Catocala luctuosa, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala atocala; Upper half of thin distinct am line runs obliquely toward anal angle, turns making two lobes to im; basal area darker grey-brown; large light brown reniform and closed sbrnfrm spots; dark upper half median and brown subterminal areas, lighter lower half; thin, distinct pm line with two elongated upper teeth; almost white along entire im.

Catocala dejecta, 56-73mm; Hodge #8790; GSMNP/WAM; Dejected Underwing: quite similar to Catocala retecta. Light coloured subreniform spot open, but it has a distinct "pork-chop" shape, separates much darker median area below sbrnfom spot from very light area to costa above spot. Lower quarter of submarginal area also much darker in C. dejecta than in C. retecta.

Catocala dejecta, Clay County, June 24 - August 4, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala obscura, Clay County, July 4 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

ulalume; Ulalume Underwing; 62-75mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; The forewing colouration is a mottled light to dark grey with no strongly contrasting lines, dashes or bars. At the inner margin the antemedial line ends with in a very light coloured crescent. The subrenifrom spot is also light coloured and "comma" shaped. The hindwing is black and the fringe is pure white with thin, sharp (pointed) checking.

Catocala ulalume, lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, July 18, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala ulalume, Clay County, July 31 - August 4, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala sappho; Sappho Underwing; 60-75mm; TP/WAM;

Forewings are off white with some grey-black-brown peppering and yellow-beige lines. The reniform spot is brown and the subreniform spot is almost pure white; the hindwings are black with a white fringe.

Catocala sappho, lights, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, July 26, 2008, Tom Payne
Catocala sappho, Clay County, August 4 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC; Fw: highly variable with mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside pm line) and dark grey scaling. Usually whitish crescents, along inner margin at base of am pm lines. The hindwings are black with white checkered fringe, turning black near the anal angle. There are several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas. Ken Childs live image of form paulina on lacrymosa file.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC.

In form evelina there is wide black band along fw inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; GSMNP/TP/WAM/KC. In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm;; TP. Form "zelica", has black basal patch and strong black subterminal line.

Catocala lacrymosa, lights, form paulina, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, August 26, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala lacrymosa, lights, form evelina, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, September 2, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala lacrymosa, bait, Woodlawn, Montgomery County, August 20, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala lacrymosa, September 21, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala lacrymosa, Clay County, July 16 - August 5, Wayne A. Miller.
Catocala lacrymosa, form paulina, Henderson, Chester County, October 10, 2011, Ken Childs.
Catocala lacrymosa, form zelica, Haynes Bottom WMA, Dotsonville, Montagomery Co., July 5, 2012, Tom Payne

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; WO?/WAM Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal area distinguish angusi. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe: black except for white apical region. Form lucetta: broad black band from basal area to om, broken by reniform, subreniform spots.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to om, broken only by reniform & subreniform spots. James K. Adams image.

Catocala angusi, Clay County, July 31 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, wingspan: 65-75mm; WO?/WAM;
The forewing is light grey with blackish shading along the inner margin. The antemedial and postmedial lines are thin. The hindwing fringe is very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward the apex. The ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in the basal area.
Vernon A. Brou image.

Catocala insolabilis, Clay County, July 4 - August 3, Wayne A. Miller.

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Probably only in Black Belt on nutmeg hickory. unconfirmed

** Catocala myristica; slightly smaller than robinsonii, myristica has a browner cell spot and a darker bottom line on the longest extension of the pm line near the inner margin. Dark bar very prominent but does not intrude on cell mark, nor present along inner edge of reniform spot. Also note absence of upper black line inside reniform spot. unconfirmed

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Fws relatively plain pale grey. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, female form: weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915: dark, broad bar extending from basal area to o.m. just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm, subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. Hw fringe: White; bands on ventral surface prominent.

** 8780 Catocala robinsonii; 70-80mm. Barred form very similar to Catocala myristica but note very thin pm line from costa to inner margin. In myristica line thickens along lower edge of longest "loop" near inner margin. Note presence of upper black line inside reniform spot.

Catocala robinsoni, Tom Payne
Catocala robinsoni, Clay County, August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; 70-80mm. Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguishing dark arc runs through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to i. m. Am line thick, black in its upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.

Catocala vidua, Woodlawn, Montgomery Co., Aug. 10, 07; Sept. 21, 08, Tom Payne.
Catocala vidua, Clay County, August 1- August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala agrippina 75-85mm; In the male, the fws are grey-black with some reddish brown (distinguishing characteristic); am and pm lines are black, darker toward costa, much lighter near inner margin. Reniform is indistinct and brown; sub-reniform is almost obsolete, but lighter than surrounding areas. Hws are black, with greyish hairs at base and im. Fringe is white, only partly cut with black at terminations of veins.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa Sad Underwing, 78-98mm; WO?/WAM; Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have the dark arc from the costa, above the reniform spot, to the outer margin just below the apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks the dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to the inner margin. The reniform spot is brown and there is brown shading just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing fringe is white, narrow and heavily barred.

Catocala maestosa, Clay County, August 2 - August 3, Wayne A. Miller.

Large Black Underwings (Banded): Wingspans: 70-80mm

** 8803 Catocala relicta; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm; WO???/WAM; Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on forewings. Form clara (depicted): basal, sbtrmnl areas predominantly white; form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire fw. Typical specimens have basal and sbtrmnl areas filled with blackish scales. Black hindwings, brilliant white inner band, white fringe.

Catocala relicta, Clay County, August 22, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws.
Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales.

Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form clara: basal and subterminal areas predominantly white.

Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire forewing. Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October, poplars and willows

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark, with elongate pair of projections. Pm/am lines meet inner margin in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped like an arrowhead with point toward body. Hws distinctive.

Catocala cerogama, bait, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
August 28, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala cerogama, Clay County, July 4 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; 65-82mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; Catocala ilia specimens: several different forms. Most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Except in worn specimens and darkest forms, white dots near outer margin of forewing are in character with overall "contrasting" appearance of moth.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

Catocala ilia, Tom Payne.
Catocala ilia, Clay County, June 20 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller
Catocala ilia larva, McNairy County, April 16, 2009, Meredith Voorhees

** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; mm; WAM; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; reniform spot brown center outlined in black, off white, black again; sbrnfrm, large, pale brown, closed. Pm line: two elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded, shorter. HW: dark scaling/hairs in basal median area along im

Catocala consors; Consort Underwing; 70+mm; WO?; Fw: irregular am/ pm narrow black lines. Orange-yellow pm band tends to be narrow , irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes band is wider and slightly less irregular. Catocala consors is same as C. pensacola Reiff, 1919. There is subspecies sorsconi Barnes and Benjamin, 1924.

Catocala muliercula; Little Wife Underwing; WO?; Dark, distinct upper half am line runs obliquely toward anal angle, turns in two lobes to im; basal area dark brown; inner brown kidney shaped reniform spot, oulined in black, light, black again; open, lighter sbrnfrm spot with light area from it to costa; median area greyish-blue-brown; sbtrmnl area brown; terminal area greyish-blue-brown; lighter patch at apex. Hw dark bands thick, much dark scaling in basal area covering two thirds of region, joining inner black band to im.

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in a dark area outside the reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange on rest of wing.

Catocala piatrix, Catocala piatrix, August 18, 2007, September 21, 2008, Tom Payne.
Catocala piatrix, Clay County, July 5 - August 5, Wayne A. Miller.

Catocala junctura; Joined Underwing; 67-85mm. Fw usually dark brownish-gray to evenly powdered blue-grey w/o significant markings. Doubled reniform spot often obscure. Thin, slightly darker am/pm lines run from costa to im, not widely spaced at im. Hw salmon/ orange-pink, narrow inner black band turns in sharply, does not meet dark-haired im.

** 8806 Catocala parta; Mother Underwing; 70-85mm; WO???; Black dashes in basal, subapical, anal areas help to identify this species. Hws may be yellow to yellowish-orange, more often are salmon-red. Note face-head-like markings on tthorax. Hw first (nearest the apex) black protrusion into white fringe is "noticeably" larger than others.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala neogama, bait, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
August 16, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala neeogam, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey, light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.

Catocala subnata, bait, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
August 18, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala subnata, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller

Catocala nebulosa; Prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at am line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area, not as dark as basal patch. Anal angle: darker brown scaling. Pm line distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between the two. Meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot large, connects to pm line via thin line.

Catocala nebulosa, bait, Woodlawn, Montgomery County,
August 15, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala nebulosa, Clay County, July 5 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller

** 8804 C. marmorata; Marbled; wingspan 85-95mm
Dark fw arc runs from costa down through reniform spot to outer margin just below apex. The subrenifrom spot is light, is bordered inwardly above by a white patch, and is connected to the pm line by a line rather than being open.

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; 70-85mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; Deep maroon almost purple cast to forewings, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am/ pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars, dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line thin, long. Hw bands pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hindwing fringe. Relatively thick black median band of hw almost reaches inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs.

Catocala cara, bait, Sexton Road, Montgomery County,
August 12, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala cara, Clay County, August 2 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** Catocala carissima; 70-85mm; WAM; Distinct light grey brown area at fw apex, preceded just inside pm line by similar but slightly darker patch. Am and pm lines are sharp and dark. Hw inner black band wide, complete, merges with extensive grey-black scaling along inner margin. Hw fringe cream coloured.

Catocala carissima, Clay County, August 2 - August 6, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm; GSMNP/TP/WAM; Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning, colouration similar to C concumbens and C. cara, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar (not always present) running from basal area to just below apex distinguishe Catocala amatrix. Hw median band does not reach im which is devoid of black scaling, found in C. cara.

Catocala amatrix form nurus, hand captured, Yellow Creek, Montgomery County,
August 18, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala amatrix minus bar, bait, Yellow Creek, Montgomery County,
August 19, 2007, Tom Payne.
Catocala amatrix, Clay County, August 4, Wayne A. Miller.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, including selecta (to the left) which lacks dark bar on forewing. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
Very skittish and frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. The melanic form hesseli is very dark and displays dark basal hairs in the hindwing.

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks

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