Catocala from Wisconsin

Catocala unijuga, courtesy of Carroll Rudy, Calumet County, Wisconsin,
August 26, 2006, id confirmed by Larry Gall.

The following checklist for Wisconsin was sent to me by Jeff Crolla. The list was compiled in 2000 (Ferge & Balogh). I have added Catocala alabamae and Catocala residua, based on Hugo L. Kons Jr., Robert J. Borth, and Thomas S. Barina checklist posted on the Web 24 August 2007. The latter list does not include Catocala innubens.

I have rearranged the order, grouping by size and hindwing colour.

In most cases the hindwings can be viewed in the individual species files. They are sometimes diagnostic.

As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.

I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.

The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.

Many thanks to Carroll Rudy and Joan F. Rickert who have sent me images and data for Wisconsin counties.

Many thanks also to Ian Miller who sends data for Eau Claire County. Kate Redmund has sent some images and data from Ozuakee County.

Many thanks to Marcie O'Connor of Buffalo County. Marcie has sent images and data to help build the data base for Wisconsin. Marcie has a very nice website at http://www.aprairiehaven.com/?page_id=10023 where you can see moths of many different families.

I am not able to distinguish between mira and blandula for this recent submission from Marcie:

Catocala mira/blandula ??, Buffalo County, Wisconsin,
July 22, 2013, courtesy of Marcie O'Connor.

Visit Wisconsin Sphingidae.


Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 30-45mm

** 8869 alabamae; Alabama Underwing; 30-40mm: Uniform greenish-grey fw may have thin but dark (contrasting) medial lines or they may be nearly absent (titania); alabamae often displays dash in median/anal angle area, missing or nearly absent in titania.Brown shading between pm line & sbtrmnl line.

**8878 Catocala amica; Girlfriend; wingspan: 35-40mm: Black postmedian band bsent from hw dorsal (upper) surface, but present on ventral surface. Moths come in to lights and bait. Catocala amica lineella now (2010) elevated to full species status as Catocala lineella. Maurice Bottos image.

** 8878.1 lineella; Little Lined Underwing; wingspan: 35-40mm: Lacks hw marginal black band. Fw subreniform spot pale, boldy outlined with black. Similar light brownish-gray patch in upper half of median area near pm line; similarly coloured light patch paralleling am line between subreniform spot & am line. Reniform spot dark, less distinct, in generally darker area.

Catocala linella, Buffalo County, July 19, 2013, Marcie O'Connor

** 8874 Catocala minuta TM; Little Underwing, 35-45mm; Fw grey-brown, greatly widened, white, st line (near costa only). Hw outer black band unbroken, inner band in complete loop, brown scaling along im. "eureka" Schwarz: blackish area between am,pm lines; "hiseri" Cassino: dull grey fw, very faint markings; "mellitula" Hulst: blackish patch in basal area from costa to im; "obliterata" Schwarz: melanic form, almost completely black fw; "parvula" W. H. Edwards: broad dark patch along fw i. m..

** 8873 similis; Similar Underwing, 35-45mm. Pale triangular patch from pm line along costa, pointed at apex, light-coloured, tear-shaped reniform spot. Subreniform spot projects much beyond reniform anteriorally at right angle to subreniform line. Many specimens have small, light coloured, flattened oval spot about halfway between pm/ am lines near midpoint of reniform spot. Pm line almost straight for most of length.

Catocala similis, Buffalo County, July 16, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

** 8846 sordida; Sordid Underwing, 37-45mm: Fw lighter along costa, darker along inner margin. Dark medial lines especially evident through lighter shades near costa. Hw outer black band broken near anal angle. Determination on moth to left based on dark scaling along inner margin limited to median area, submarginal "teeth" relatively short, blunt.


Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
These tend to be slightly larger on average than preceding group.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha, Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form gisela, Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm: Usually have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "gisela" Meyer has mostly black forewing.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form hero, Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passes from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.

Catocala micronympha form hero, Buffalo County, July 19, 2013, Marcie O'Connor

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm. Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings. Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.

** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, 35-50mm. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has sll black hindwing.

Catocala micronympha, Buffalo County, July 17, 19, 20, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, 35-50mm. Fw: highly variable, several different forms: "sancta" Hulst: typical form: fws with white ground colour & sharply contrasting black lines & markings. Brown shading between post medial & subterminal lines; "cordelia" H. Edwards: as above but markings faint; "pulverulenta" Brower: grey-green forewings: faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri" Muller: fws: dark green, almost black. Hw: separate anal spot & outer band ends with straight cut.

Catocala connubialis, Buffalo County, July 19, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, 40-50mm
The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint.
Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala grynea, July 23, 2007, Calumet County, Carroll Ruddy

** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, 40-50mm
The forewing is a pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line.
There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area.
Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Tim Dyson image.

** 8867 Catocala blandula; Charming Underwing, 40-50mm.
Fw: Pale basal area distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw: dark contrasting lines as in crataegi. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from the costa to the subreniform spot. Hw: deep orange and has complete inner black band. Outer black band unbroken. Lynn Scott image.

Catocala blandula, Buffalo County, July 22, 2013, Marcie O'Connor
Catocala blandula, Buffalo County, July 16, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, 40-50mm. Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi & blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area & subreniform spot is very conspicuous & usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along im between am & postmedial lines. Hw: deep orange with complete inner black band. Outer black band unbroken Tim Dyson image.

Catocala mira, July 23, 2007, Calumet County, Carroll Ruddy

** 8858 Catocala crataegi WO; Hawthorn Underwing, 40-50mm. Determinations based on dark (black) shading in forewing basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle; brown shading beyond postmedial line. Definite greenish cast to median area. Hw: outer black band, broken near anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula.

** 8841 Catocala abbreviatella; Abbreviated Underwing; 40-50mm. Fw uniformly colored with narrow black lines on anterior half. Brown reniform spot ringed with black. Hw Outer black band abbreviated, then a dot. Inner black band terminates well before im. Similar to Catocala nuptialis, solid black reniform spot. C. whitneyi, broad dark triangles mid fw.

** 8842 Catocala nuptialis; Maried Underwing, wingspan 40-50mm.
Reniform spot: very dark, black or almost black on an otherwise faintly marked, almost uniformly grey forewing. Hw outer black margin unbroken, but indented near the anal angle. Jim Vargo image.

** 8843 whitneyi; Whitney's Underwing, 43-50mm. Catocala whitneyi is similar to abbreviatella Grote, & nuptialis Walker, but generally flies later in the season where species overlap. Two black wedges/triangles on forewing, one over reniform spot and other just outside antemedial line, distinguish whitneyi. Gerald Fauske image.

** 8844 amestris; Three-staff Underwing; 45-50mm. There is a large pale patch near the apex. In form "westcotti" the hindwing outer black band is complete. In other moths, the band is broken as in abbreviatella. Hindwing ground colour is usually deeper yellow-orange than in similar species. Leroy Simon image.

Catocala amestris, Buffalo County, July 28, 2011; July 17, 2013; Marcie O'Connor

** 8775 antinympha; Sweetfern Underwing, 45-55mm. Very dark grey, almost black, forewing ground colour distinguishes antinympha. There is some brown shading in subreniform spot and also just outside postmedial line. The hindwing is amber to pale orange. There is form multoconspicua Reiff, 1919 with a pale, almost white subreniform spot. Tim Dyson image.

** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.

The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash. Note large, closed subreniform spot and diffuse white outline of reniform spot

Vernon Brou image.

Catocala clintoni, July 9 2007, Calumet County, Carroll Ruddy
Catocala clintoni, July 22, 2013, Buffalo County, Marcie O'Connor

** 8776 badia coelebs; Old Maid Underwing, wingspan 54-56mm.
The gray region from the forewing pm line to the outer margin readily distinguishes this species. The fringe is gray on the lower wing from the brief orange dash at the hindwing apex to the anal angle.
Tim Dyson image.

Midsized Orange-Salmon-Red-Scarlet Underwings: Wingspans: 50-72mm

** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.

** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.

In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.

On all forms there is extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface, and there is a dark discal lunule.

Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In melanic form nigrescens, dorsal forewing very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hw. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from son.

Catocala ultronia form celia.

In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and a dark patch near the apex. The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.

Catocala ultronia, July 23, 2007, Calumet County, Carroll Ruddy

** 8779 serena Serene Underwing. Head & collar & abdomen are brown while thorax is grey. Am & pm lines are thin, very dark, distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey fw. Black marginal band of lower wings is indented at center, relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy, July 28, Calumet County.

#8778 Catocala habilis; 55-65mm. Note large "M" on thorax & "pork chop" shaped, light coloured subreniform spot becoming very dark in constriction at juncture with pm line. Pm line narrow, dark, distinct & outwardly lined with narrow suffusion of white scales, followed by broader band of brown scales, & broader suffusion of white scales up to regular dentation of st line. Significant "bleeding" of yellow-orange to salmon scales into hw fringes. Large reniform spot has brown center, faintly edged with black, then white, then black again.

#8817 briseis; Briseis Underwing; 60-70mm. Fws mostly mottled dark-grey-brown with some lighter areas between pm & subterminal lines, at base of am and pm lines along i. m., and over subreniform spot running diagonally toward costa. Pm lines do not have greatly elongated and sharly pointed "teeth" near apex. Hw fringe white, unbroken; inner black band (fairly even) reaches i. m..

#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, smaller than habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, & irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i.m. and light, closed subreniform spot.

#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; 60-70mm. In this form, the forewing basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background.
The dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing mottled with white, grey and brown; subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin. Jim Vargo image.

** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.

In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.

Vernon A Brou image.

** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; 57-70mm. Usually diffuse basal & anal dashes on otherwise light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe is white (often with some salmon scaling) and is heavily checked. "Tooth" just below pair of elongated "teeth" is much reduced & quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot light, often with greenish cast.

Catocala coccinata female, Eau Claire County, July 29, 2011, Ian Miller
Catocala coccinata, Buffalo County, July 13, 19, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

** 8840 Catocala illecta; Magdalen Underwing, wingspan: 60-70mm
The forewing pattern and colouration is much like that of concumbens, pale grey with faint black lines. hws light yellow and the irregular inner black band terminates well before the inner margin. James K. Adams image.

Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired

** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw: uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened am, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Rniform area slightly darkened while area just before subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.

** 8773 Catocala epione , yes; Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm
The pm line is squared and has a brown band and then a light band just outside the line.
The hindwing is black with pure white fringe with no barring.

John Himmelman image.

Catocala retecta; 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated, open subreniform spot interrupting dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Reniform spot center: brown; brown area just below costa running to inner margin just outside pm line. Off-white hindwing fringe only lightly checked along wing veins. Joe Garris image.

Catocala luctuosa, Underwing, (wingspan: 70mm). Fw light grey (yellowish tint) clearly marked with basal dash that continues with another dash through am line, followed by another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. Fw pml "teeth" elongated, dark, continuing dark dar emanating from om just below apex.

** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, 60-72mm, has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes or streaks, providing for easy identification. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines of obscura are faint and the subterminal line region is only slightly paler than the rest of the forewing. The hindwing fringe is off-white and lightly checked on the veins. Joe Garris photo.

Catocala residua, Residua Underwing, yes, (wingspan: 58-73mm), Distinguished from C. obscura by grey hindwing fringe of residua. C. obscura has white to off-white fringe, tends to be less common in northern portions of its range. Fw subterminal line/area of C. residua tends to be pale as is its open, elongated subreniform spot.
Devoid of significant markings except for hint of dark bar running from basal area through reniform spot to om just below apex.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm.

Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. James K. Adams images.

** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to om, broken only by reniform & subreniform spots.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. The forewing is highly variable with a mixture of black, brown (wing tips and outside postmedial line) and dark grey scaling. There are usually whitish crescents, along the inner margin at the base of the antemedial and postmedial lines.
The hindwings are black with white checkered fringe, turning black near the anal angle. There are several different forms.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm. Form paulina: lighter grey post median area & area along and parallel to inner margin, in sharp contrast to darker basal median areas.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.

In form evelina there is a wide black band along the forewing inner margin.

** 8794 Catocala lacrymosa; Tearful Underwing, 60-82mm.
In form albomarginata there is an abundance of white scaling on the forewing.

Form "zelica", not shown, has black basal patch and st line.

** 8791 Catocala insolabilis; Inconsolable, 65-75mm. Fw light grey with blackish shading along inner margin. Am/pm lines thin. Hw fringe: very narrow, grey, becoming whiter toward apex. Ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost completely black except for some white in basal area. Vernon A. Brou image.

** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; 70-80mm. Fw gc light grey; distinct dark arc running through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal/basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to im. Am line thick & black in upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot: light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted.

** 8793 Catocala maestosa; Sad Underwing, 78-98mm. Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have dark arc from costa, above reniform spot, to outer margin just below apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to inner margin. Reniform spot: brown with brown shading just outside postmedial line. Hindwing fringe: white, narrow, heavily barred.

Large Black Underwings (Banded): Wingspans: 70-80mm

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws.
Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales.

Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form clara: basal and subterminal areas predominantly white.

Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.

** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire forewing. Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October, poplars and willows

Catocala relicta female, Eau Claire County, July 29, 2011, Ian Miller
Catocala relicta, Medford, Taylor County, September, October 1-2, 2011, Joan F. Rickert.
Catocala relicta, Buffalo County, September 17, 2011, Marcie O'Connor

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm. Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark with elongate pair of projections. Pm/am lines meet inner margin in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped like arrowhead pointed toward body.
Hws are distinctive.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.

Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala cerogama, Ozaukee County, Kate Redmund.
Catocala cerogama, Buffalo County, September 17, 2011, Marcie O'Connor
Catocala cerogama, Madison, Dane County, July 31, 2014, Julie Luther.

Large Orange-Salmon Underwings: Wingspans: 65mm, usually 70-95mm

** 8822 meskei; Meske's Underwing; 65-75mm. Fws less distinctly marked compared to unijuga and some red-orange at hw apex and just inside fringe along outer margin in meskei that is lacking in unijuga. fw subreniform spot is opened or connected to the postmedian line. The hindwing postmedian band is nearly straight, turned in and tapering near the anal angle. Tim Dyson image.

Catocala meskei, tentative id by Bill Oehlke, Ozaukee County, Kate Redmund.

** 8821 semirelicta; Semirelict Underwing; wingspan: 65-75mm. Fw ground colour white with dark lines/shadings. Diffuse dark bar runs from center of basal area to outer margin a few mm above anal angle. Note regular dentation of st line. Inner black bar on lower wing usually terminates well before inner margin. The form "atala" has uniformly grey fw. Unijuga: usually larger with less contrasting black lines. Inner black bar on unijuga usually reaches inner margin.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua

In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas

In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".

The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.

Tim Dyson image.

** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani

In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.

The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.

Tim Dyson image.

Catocala ilia male and female, Eau Claire County, July 29, 2011, Ian Miller
Catocala ilia female, Eau Claire County, August 18, 2011, Ian Miller
Catocala ilia, Buffalo County, July 11, 2011, Marcie O'Connor
Catocala ilia, Buffalo County, July 19, 2014, Marcie O'Connor

** 8808 luciana; Luciana Underwing, 70-80mm. Pale grey brown forewing with very distinct am & postmedial lines. Subreniform spot has elongated narrow "tail" that seems to open through postmedial line. Inner black band of hw does not reach inner margin. Fringe is checked and paler (almost yellow) than salmon ground colour.

** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in dark area outside rnfrm spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter than deeper orange.

Catocala piatrix, Buffalo County, August 25, 2012, Marcie O'Connor.

Catocala junctura; Joined Underwing; : 67-85mm. Fw dark brownish-gray to evenly powdered blue-grey w/o significant markings. Doubled rnfrm spot obscure. Thin, slightly darker am & pm lines run from costa to im, not widely spaced at im. Hw salmon or orange-pink with narrow inner black band turning sharply; not meeting dark-haired im.

** 8805 unijuga; Once-married; 70-90mm. Fairly wide black inner band (almost reaching i. m.) in hw; very distinctive patterning in fw. Meskei tend to have narrower band and dustier (less distinct) looking fw. Semirelicta tend to have inner bands terminating well before i. ms. Note very white fringe on both forewings & hindwings.

Catocala unijuga, Aug 26, Calumet County, Carroll Rudy.
Catocala unijuga, September 03, 2006, Taylor County, Joan F. Rickert.
Catocala unijuga, September 1, 10, Buffalo County, Marcie O'Connor

** 8806 Catocala parta; Mother Underwing, 70-85mm. Black dashes: basal, subapical, anal areas help identify this species. Hws may be yellow to yellowish-orange; more often are salmon-red. Note face-head-like markings on thorax. Hw: first (nearest apex) black protrusion into the white fringe "noticeably" larger than others.

Catocala parta, Buffalo County, September 12, 2013, courtesy of Marcie O'Connor.

** 8798 Catocala neogama; 70-85mm. Note brown head & thorax & larger size compared to C. palaeogama. Specimens slightly smaller than subnata, darker grey brown forewings, more pronounced markings. Neogama's hind tibia: flattened and unevenly & sparsely spined while subnata's tibia: cylindrical with spines dense & uniform in distribution.

Catocala neogama, Buffalo County, August 10, 2013, Marcie O'Connor.

** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing, 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey & light brown scales. Hws Usually brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, present in females. Magnification of hind tibia helps ith determinations: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia.

** 8796 Catocala nebulosa; Clouded; 75-86mm. Prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch extending to, ending at am line. Apical area brown, much darker than median area, not as dark as basal patch. Anal angle has darker brown scaling. Pm line: distinct near costa and inner margin, becomes weak between two, meeting inner margin in close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot: large; connects to pm line via thin line.

Medium-Large Pink Underwings: Wingspans: 70-95mm

** 8833 concumbens Sleepy Underwing; Pink Underwing, 60-75mm. Brown thoracic collar quite evident in this image as is interruption in pm line by open subreniform spot. White hw fringe only lightly checked on wing veins. Vibrant pink bands distinct in colour and in their relatively smooth contour.

Catocala concumbens, Buffalo County, July 20, 2012, Marcie O'Connor
Catocala concumbens, Medford, Taylor County, September 3, 2013, Joan F. Rickert.

** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; 70-85mm. Note deep maroon almost purple cast to fws, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am/pm lines barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. Two upper "teeth" on pm line: thin/long. Hw bands: pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hw fringe. Relatively thick hw black median band almost reaches inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs.

Catocala cara female, taken at bait 10:30pm, Eau Claire County, August 18, 2011, Ian Miller.
Catocala cara, Ozaukee County, August 28, 2011, Kate Redmund.
Catocala cara, Buffalo County, September 17, 2011; September 1, 2012, Marcie O'Connor

** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm. Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, larger size, dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix.

Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.

** 8834 amatrix form selecta Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm: Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Several forms, selecta (left) lacks fw dark bar. Hesseli: melanic form; pallida: very pale form.

** 8834 amatrix form hesseli Sweetheart Underwing; 75-95mm: Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Melanic form hesseli very dark, displays hw dark basal hairs.

Catocala amatrix female, Eau Claire County, August 18, 2011, Ian Miller
Catocala amatrix, Ozaukee County, August 12, 2007, courtesy of Kate Redmond.
Catocala amatrix, Buffalo County, August 12, 2011, courtesy of Marcie O'Connor

Catocala unijuga, courtesy of Joan F. Rickert, Taylor County, Wisconsin,
September 03, 2006, id by Bill Oehlke.

Calumet County sightings by Carroll Rudy:

Catocala serena July 28, 2006
Catocala unijuga August 26, 2006
Catocala clintoni July 9 2007
Catocala mira July 23, 2007
Catocala grynea July 23, 2007
Catocala ultronia July 23, 2007

RECORDS FOR CALUMET COUNTY, WISCONSIN, TOWN OF BROTHERTOWN, GOVERNMENT LOT #135, COURTESY OF CARROLL RUDY

------------------------

8779 Catocala serena 7-28-06 --out of range

8788 Catocala retecta 8-16-05 through 9-13-05
8788 Catocala retecta 8-5-06 through 8-18-06

8797 Catocala subnata 8-14-06

8798 Catocala neogama 7-26-06

8801 Catocala ilia 7-26-06
Catocala ilia 7-9-07 form conspicua

8802 Catocala cerogama 8-8-05, 9-18-05
Catocala cerogama 7-24-06 through 9-16-06 Aug --abundant

8803 Catocala relicta 8-9-05 to 9-15-05
8803 Catocala relicta 8-18-06 through 9-16-06 both white form ' and "normal' form in equal numbers

8805 Catocala unijuga 8-26-05 to 9-26-05
Catocala unijuga 8-9-06 --through 9-7-06

8806 Catocala parta 8-27-05 through 9-18-05
Catocala parta 7-25-06 through 9-7-06
Catocala parta 7-18-07

8822 Catocala meskei 8-5-06

8832 Catocala cara 9-13-04
Catocala cara 8-1-05 to 9-18-05
Catocala cara 8-2-06 through 9-16-06 ----abundant

8833 Catocala concumbens 9-3-04
Catocala concumbens 8-5-05 to 9-17-05
Catocala concumbens 8-1-06 through 10-2-06 --Abundant

8834 Catocala amatrix 9-3-04
Catocala amatrix 8-8-05 to 9-26-05
Catocala amatrix 8-9-06 till 9-6-06

Catocala mira 7-8-07

8864 Catocala grynea 9-22-04
Catocala grynea 7-31-05
Catocala grynea 7-24-06 -- Aug 18-- abundant
Catocala grynea 7-8-07

8857 Catocala ultronia 8-3-04
Catocala ultronia 7-29-05
Catocala ultronia 7-23-06 through 9-1-06 --abundant
Catocala ultronia 7-8-07

8867 Catocala blandula 7-20-06 7-25-06

8872 Catocala clintoni 7-9-07

++++++++++++++++++

Taylor County sightings by Joan F. Rickert:

Catocala amatrix August 30
Catocala unijuga September 3

Medfor (Taylor County) sightings by Loretta Kuse and Hildegard Kuse:

8833 Catocala concumbens 8-8-07
8802 Catocala cerogama 8-8-07

Catocala cerogama and Catocala concumbens sipping cider,
August 8, 2007, courtesy of Loretta Kuse and Hildegard Kuse.

Loretta and Hildegard write, "We have been trying to identify a number of large moths that have visited rotting fruit the last few nights. We think the two underwing moths might be Catocala cerogama and concumbens. Last night there were nine of the yellowish ones on a wheelbarrow filled with rotten apples. Later there was one beautiful brown moth and we have no idea what kind it was. All were 'sipping cider' and enjoying the evening."

Ascalapha odorata

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Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 3783 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks

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Contributions to a Check List of the Lepidoptera of Wisconsin
(Macrolepidoptera Families: Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae; also including: Hepialidae, Cossidae, Attevidae, Yponomeutidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae, and Thyrididae)
By Hugo L. Kons Jr., Robert J. Borth, and Thomas S. Barina
Posted on the Web 24 August 2007

8770 Catocala innubens *
8771 Catocala piatrix *
8773 Catocala epione *
8775 Catocala antinympha *
8776 Catocala coelebs *
8778 Catocala habilis *
8779 Catocala serena *
8781 Catocala judith *
8784 Catocala obscura *
8785 Catocala residua
8788 Catocala retecta *
8791 Catocala insolabilis * [Examined by RJB, col. J. Parkinson]
8792 Catocala vidua *
8793 Catocala maestosa *
8794 Catocala lacrymosa * [Examined, col. W. Seiker]
8795 Catocala palaeogama *
8796 Catocala nebulosa *
8797 Catocala subnata *
8798 Catocala neogama *
8801 Catocala ilia *
8802 Catocala cerogama *
8803 Catocala relicta *
8805 Catocala unijuga *
8806 Catocala parta *
8808 Catocala luciana *
8817 Catocala briseis *
8821 Catocala semirelicta *
8822 Catocala meskei *
8829 Catocala junctura * [Examined, col. W. Seiker]
8832 Catocala cara *
8833 Catocala concumbens *
8834 Catocala amatrix *
8840 Catocala illecta *
8841 Catocala abbreviatella *
8842 Catocala nuptialis *
8843 Catocala whitneyi *
8844 Catocala amestris *
8846 Catocala sordida *
8851 Catocala coccinata *
8857 Catocala ultronia *
8858 Catocala crataegi *
8863 Catocala mira *
8864 Catocala grynea *
8865 Catocala praeclara *
8867 Catocala blandula *
8869 Catocala alabamae
8872 Catocala clintoni *
8873 Catocala similis *
8874 Catocala minuta *
8876 Catocala micronympha *
8877 Catocala connubialis *
8878 Catocala amica *
8878.1 Catocala lineella *