As of April 4, 2010, this page has been further updated as per research data compiled by Larry Gall.
I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level,
bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke.
All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.
I would like to continue to refine the listings to county levels so images and data (date, location at least to county level, bait, lights) would be very much appreciated. Please send same to Bill Oehlke. All images that I use on my websites remain the property of respective photographers and images are credited as such.
The Identification Keys Diagram should help you understand the terminology I have used in describing the various species.
Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-45mm
Little Yellow-Orange Underwings: Wingspans: 35-56mm
** 8876 Catocala micronympha, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). John Himmelman image. Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. High variability. Full size Joe Garris photo of C. micronympha form hero.
** 8876 Catocala micronympha
the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
** 8876 Catocala micronympha
the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
The usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown,
black and white tints. There is usually a darkened band passing from
the costa through the reniform spot to the outer margin.
Form "hero" H. Edwards has a median area that is mostly white.
** 8876 Catocala micronympha form lolita, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm).
Form "lolita" Sargent has very dark forewings.
Harold J. Vermes image, used with permission from his son.
** 8876 Catocala micronympha form sargenti, the Little Nymph Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Usual specimens have grey forewings shaded with green, brown, black and white tints. Usually a darkened band passing from costa through reniform spot to outer margin. Form "sargenti" Covell (very rare) has a hindwing that is all black.
** 8877 connubialis, Connubial Underwing, (wingspan: 35-50mm). Fw highly variable, several forms: "sancta" Hulst: typical form, fws with white ground colour and sharply contrasting black lines and markings. Brown shading between post medial and subterminal lines; "cordelia" H. Edwards: coloured as above, markings faint; "pulverulenta" Brower: grey-green forewings with faint markings, sometimes none; "broweri" Muller: melanic form; fws dark green, almost black. Hw has a separate anal spot; outer band ends with straight cut. Leroy Simon image.
** 8864 Catocala grynea ; Woody Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm
The forewing is a dull greenish grey with orangey-brown shading along the inner margin. The antemedial, median and postmedial lines are quite faint. Praeclara is somewhat similar but has a break in the brown shading between the am and pm lines. Praeclara also has a paler orange hindwing color. Tim Dyson image.
** 8867 Catocala blandula;
Charming Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm.
Catocala mira; Wonderful Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm: Pale basal area of fw distinguishes mira from blandula (dark brown) and crataegi (black). Fw lacks dark contrasting lines of crataegi and blandula. Considerable brown in subterminal area and subreniform spot is very conspicuous and usually brown. Light area runs obliquely from costa to subreniform spot. Noticeable space along inner margin between am and pm lines. Hw is deep orange and has a complete inner black band. Outer black band is unbroken. Tim Dyson image.
** 8858 Catocala crataegi WO; Hawthorn Underwing, wingspan: 40-50mm. Determination based on dark (black) shading in fw basal area continuing along inner margin to anal angle and brown shading beyond postmedial line. Definite greenish cast to median area. The lower wing has the outer black band, broken near the anal angle, distinguishing crataegi from blandula. Tim Dyson image.
** 8775 antinympha; Sweetfern Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm. Very dark grey, almost black, forewing ground colour distinguishes antinympha. Some brown shading in subreniform spot and also just outside postmedial line. The hindwing is amber to pale orange. There is also the form multoconspicua Reiff, 1919 with a pale, almost white subreniform spot.
dulciola; Quiet/Sweet Underwing, wingspan: 40-45mm;
A double, black, almost smooth antemedial line (inner line broken only near the costa) with other lines obscure distinguishes dulciola. There is also a dark basal dash on an otherwise plain, light grey forewing.
** 8772 gracilis; Graceful Underwing, wingspan 40-45mm.
Gracilis closely resembles sordida but the hindwing loop is not complete in gracilis as it is in sordida. Gracilis also tends to have a darker inner margin and there is frequently (99% of the time, Dale Schweitzer, via Joe Garris), but not always, a basal dash. Sordida never has the basal dash.
** 8865 praeclara; Praeclara Underwing, (40-50mm); The forewing is a pale greenish-grey with considerable contrasting brown shading beyond post medial line.
There is a black basal dash very close to the inner margin and another dash, higher up in the median area.
Note the contrasting shapes of the reniform and subreniform spots. Tim Dyson image.
Catocala pretiosa Precious Underwing; 40-50mm; This species is quite similar to crataegi and mira, but pretiosa has considerable creamy white colouration in the median area. The lower portion of the basal area is also light, not dark as in crataegi. The inner black band of the hindwing forms a loop and the outer band is broken (not complete as in mira, followed by a dot that tapers to the anal angle.
** 8772 clintoni; Clinton's Underwing, wingspan 45-55mm.
The black basal dash distinguishes clintoni from illecta and abbreviatella, both of which lack the dash.
Vernon Brou image.
** 8843 whitneyi unconfirmed; Whitney's Underwing; 43-50mm. Catocala whitneyi is similar to abbreviatella Grote, and nuptialis Walker, but generally flies later in the season where the species overlap. The two black wedges/triangles on the forewing, one over the reniform spot and the other just outside the antemedial line, distinguish whitneyi. Gerald Fauske image.
* 8778 habilis Grote, 1872 HABILIS UNDERWING
** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; wingspan: 65-82mm. Several different forms, most have characteristic white area in and around reniform spot. Diffuse dark arc running from this spot to just below apex. Subreniform spot squarish, concave inner and outer edges and elongated constriction connecting it to pml. White dots near fw om in character with the overall "contrasting" appearance.
** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form conspicua
In this form the entire reniform spot is heavily suffused with white scaling on an otherwise darker ground colour. Hence the form name "conspicua".
Tim Dyson image.
** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form satanas
In this melanic form the entire forewing, including the reniform spot is very dark. Hence the form name "satanas".
The dark basal streak is still evident on this form.
Tim Dyson image.
** 8801 Catocala ilia; Ilia; form normani
In this semi-melanic form the entire forewing, excluding the reniform spot, is relatively dark. The brownish, kidney-shaped center of the reniform spot is outlined in white.
The basal streak and subapical arc are still visible.
Tim Dyson image.
* 8840 illecta Walker,  Magdalen Underwing
** 8851 Catocala coccinata; Scarlet; wingspan: 57-70mm: There are usually diffuse basal and anal dashes on an otherwise light grey, mottled fw. Hw fringe is white (often with some salmon scaling) and is heavily checked. I find "tooth" just below pair of very elongated "teeth" is much reduced and is quite rounded, usually allowing considerable room for lighter patch of scales. Dark bar crosses thorax. Reniform spot tends be to light, often with greenish cast. Joe Garris image.
** 8772 Catocala consors WO; Consort, wingspan: 70mm plus. Fw with irregular am and pm narrow black lines. Dark patch outside the reniform and subreniform spots. The orange-yellow hindwing pm band tends to be narrow and irregularly zigzagged. Sometimes the band is wider and slightly less irregular. James K. Adams image.
** 8857 Catocala ultronia; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.
Fws typically gray-brown, with a distinct and very dark inner margin and characteristic light brown patch, underscored by very dark arc, near wingtip. Underwings can be yellow to orange to salmon.
** 8857 Catocala ultronia form lucinda; Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm.
In form lucinda most of the forewing is bright grey.
On all forms there is
extensive orange-salmon colouration on hw ventral surface,
and there is a dark discal lunule.
Catocala ultronia, form nigrescens, the Ultronia Underwing, wingspan: 50-63mm. In the melanic form nigrescens, the dorsal forewing is very dark. Even darker subapical arc, basal dash and dash near anal angle are still visible. Dark basal hairs on hindwing. Harold J. Vermes slide, used with permission from his son.
Catocala ultronia form celia.
In form celia there is a wide, light grey band separating a dark region along inner margin and
a dark patch near the apex.
The ventral surface of forewings of all forms has a generous suffusion
of orange-salmon scales in the lower half of the median area.
** 8779 serena Serene Underwing. 55-60mm. Head, collar and abdomen are brown while thorax is grey. Am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. Black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy.
** 8770 Catocala innubens; Betrothed; 55-72mm. Forewing is mottled with white, grey and brown, and subrenifrom spot tends to be lighter in colour, although it is sometimes obscured by an indistinct blackish bar which runs from middle of basal/thorax connection to just below much lighter apex at outer margin.
Jim Vargo image.
** 8770 Catocala innubens form scintillans; Betrothed; 55-72mm.
In form scintillans most of the basal area (all but lower third) and all of the median area of the forewing is dark reddish brown. The area outside the pm line is grey.
Vernon A Brou image.
* 8791 insolabilis Guenee, 1852 Inconsolable Underwing
* 8829 junctura Walker, Joined Underwing
* 8794 lacrymosa Guenee, 1852 Tearful Underwing
* 8804 marmorata Edwards, 1864 Marbled Underwing Solid Black Underwings: Smallest to Largest, Similar Species Paired
miranda, Miranda Underwing; 37-45mm; Fw: plain pale grey with very light and fine black lines, darker and wider near costa. Hw black with white fringe at the apex, turning to grey along the outer margin. Miranda is smaller than look-alike orba and miranda also has a dark bar just above the inner margin in the median area, projecting toward the anal angle.
Catocala andromedae, Gloomy Underwing, (wingspan: 40-50mm). Black underwings and dark grey fringe of hws, coupled with dark i.m. of fws help to identify this species. There is also a very dark "flying saucer" shape, adjoining subreniform spot to midpoint of am line. The "teeth" of pm line short and blunt, outwardly edged with white. Subterminal line is also outwardly edged with white.
** 8781 judith, Judith's Underwing, 45-55mm; one of smaller "black" underwings. Fw uniform light grey with thin, only slightly darkened antemedial, median & pm lines. No darkened dashes (slight anal dash) or transverse lines. Reniform area slightly darkened while the area just before the subterminal line is a bit lighter. Note absence of hw white fringe. Joe Garris photo.
** 8782 Catocala flebilis, yes; Mournful, wingspan: 54-65mm. Diffuse black band runs from basal area to outer margin just below apex, interrupted by pale grey subreniform spot. Reniform spot is filled with brown; there is additional brown outside postmedial line. No anal dash as there is in angusi. The hindwings have white fringe. J. K. Adams image.
Catocala epione , yes;
Epione Underwing, wingspan: 55-65mm
John Himmelman image.
Catocala ulalume, Ulalume Underwing, (wingspan: 65mm). Fw mottled light to dark grey, no strongly contrasting lines, dashes, bars. Aml ends at im in very light coloured crescent, close to pml. Open subrenifrom spot light coloured, "comma" shaped with triangular, somewhat bulbous head. Aml: short, thin, slightly humped dark line through midpoint. Hw black, fringe pure white, thin, pointed checking.
Residua Underwing, yes, (wingspan: 58-73mm),
Distinguished from C. obscura by grey hindwing
fringe of residua.
C. obscura has white to off-white fringe, tends to be
less common in northern portions of its range. Fw
subterminal line/area of C. residua tends to be pale as
is its open, elongated subreniform spot.
Catocala luctuosa, Underwing, (wingspan: 70mm). Fw light grey (yellowish tint) clearly marked with a basal dash that continues with another dash through the am line, followed by another anal dash almost forming bar parallel to im. Hw fringe white, lightly barred at veins. Fw pml "teeth" elongated and dark, continuing dark dar emanating from om just below apex.
Catocala dejecta; Dejected; wingspan 56-73mm. Pale grey patch from reniform and subreniform juncture to costal margin is diagnostic. Note open, light "pork chop" shape of subreniform spot. Two "teeth" in pml above subreniform spot are relatively short and blunt. Upper portion of aml thick and black; lower half has light rounded lobes outlined in black. Hw fringe is white with black wing veins extending like "teeth".
Catocala retecta; wingspan: 60-75mm. Note light coloured, elongated and open subreniform spot which interrupts dark, diffuse ark running through center of wing from basal area (body-wing juncture) to fw apex. Center of reniform spot brown and there is a brown area just below costa running to inner margin just outside pm line. Off-white hindwing fringe only lightly checked along wing veins. Joe Garris image.
** 8784 obscura; the Obscure Underwing, (wingspan: 60-72mm), has dull, grey forewings, usually void of any significant dashes, streaks, providing for easy identification. Am, median and pm lines faint and subterminal line region is only slightly paler than rest of fw. Hw fringe is off-white, lightly checked on veins. Joe Garris photo.
** 8783 Catocala angusi
WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm.
** 8783 Catocala angusi WO; Angus' Underwing, 60-74mm; Dark dashes/streaks in basal & anal areas. Reniform spot: light brown filling. Hw fringe black except for white region at apex. Form lucetta has broad black band from basal area to om, broken only by reniform & subreniform spots. James K. Adams image.
Inconsolable, wingspan: 65-75mm;
Fw light grey with blackish shading along inner
margin. Antemedial and postmedial lines are thin.
Hw fringe very narrow and grey, becoming whiter toward
Ventral surface clearly distinguishes insolabis, being almost
completely black except for some white in basal area.
** 8780 Catocala robinsoni; 70-80mm. Fws relatively plain pale grey. Female has basal dash, absent in male. Currata French, 1882, female form: weak basal dash. Rare form missouriensis Schwarz, 1915: dark, broad bar extending from basal area to o.m. just below apex. Lighter grey rnfm, subrnfm spots break bar in missouriensis, found from PA. to FL. Hw fringe: White; bands on ventral surface prominent.
** 8792 Catocala vidua; Widow; 70-80mm. Fw ground colour light grey. Distinguishing dark arc runs through top of reniform spot to just below apex. Heavy, dark anal and basal dashes, connecting to dark median bar, running parallel to i. m. Am line thick, black in its upper half. Reniform spot with two almost concentric irregular ovals. Subreniform spot light, open, constricted as it meets pm line. Hw black with broad, white fringe, lightly interrupted. Marie Winn image.
Catocala agrippina, Underwing, (wingspan: 75-85mm). Head and body blackish grey (dorsal) and greyish white (ventral). Male fws grey-black with some reddish brown (distinguishing characteristic); transverse lines black, darker toward costa, lighter near im. Reniform indistinct, brown, sub-reniform almost obsolete, lighter than surrounding areas.
** 8793 Catocala maestosa TM; Sad Underwing; 78-98mm. Maesotsa is quite similar to, although usually larger than, vidua. Both have the dark arc from the costa, above the reniform spot, to the outer margin just below the apex. Maesotsa, however, lacks the dark bar, found on vidua, parallel to the inner margin. The reniform spot is brown and there is brown shading just outside the postmedial line. The hindwing fringe is white, narrow and heavily barred.
** 8803 Catocala relicta
Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm:
Considerable variation with regard to black/white
concentrations on fws.
** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form clara: basal and subterminal areas predominantly white.
Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October.
** 8803 Catocala relicta ; Forsaken, White, Relict; 70-80mm: Considerable variation with regard to black/white concentrations on fws. Form phrynia: evenly dusted with grey over entire forewing. Typical specimens have basal and subterminal areas with blackish scales. Black hws, with brilliant even white inner band and white fringe, are distinctive. June until October, poplars and willows
** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm. Several different forms. Pm line distinct, dark and has elongate pair of projections. Pm and am lines meet inner margin in relative proximity. Closed subreniform spot lighter than surrounding areas, shaped a bit like an arrowhead with point toward body. Hws are distinctive. Jean-Benoît Duval image.
** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form ruperti: Forewings are almost uniform grey-brown with white scales outlining subterminal line.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.
** 8802 Catocala cerogama; Yellow-Banded; 70-80mm.
Form bunkeri: Forewings are dark in median and basal areas. Hw golden band is reduced in thickness. Basal hairs are brown instead of yellow.
The hindwings are distinctive. Tim Dyson image.
** 8822 meskei TM; Meske's Underwing; 65-75mm. Fws less distinctly marked compared to unijuga, some red-orange at the hindwing apex and just inside the fringe along the outer margin in meskei that is lacking in unijuga. Fw subreniform spot is opened or connected to the postmedian line. The hindwing postmedian band nearly straight, turned in and tapering near anal angle. Tim Dyson image.
#8817 briseis; Briseis Underwing; 60-70mm; Fws predominantly mottled dark-grey-brown with some lighter areas 1) between postmedial & subterminal lines, 2) at base of am & pm lines along inner margin, 3) over subreniform spot running diagonally toward costa. Pm lines do not have greatly elongated and sharly pointed "teeth" near apex. Hw fringe white & unbroken, inner black band (fairly even) reaches inner margin. Tim Dyson image.
#8795 Catocala palaeogama ; wingspan: 60-70mm. Subreniform spot closed, does not approach pm line, is smaller than in C. habilis. All forms have characteristic orange, heavily barred fringe to apex, and irregular bands on hws. Hw basal median area heavily suffused with dark brown to black scales. Dark bar in outer half of median area, paralleling i. m. halfway between i. m. and light, closed subreniform spot. Joe Garris photo.
#8795 Catocala palaeogama form phalanga; wingspan: 60-70mm. In this form, fw basal area and subterminal area are very dark against a much lighter background. Dark bar in the outer half of the median area, paralleling the inner margin halfway between the inner margin and the light, closed subreniform spot is especially evident. Joe Garris image.
* 8784 obscura TL Strecker, 1873 Obscure Underwing
** 8771 Catocala piatrix ; Penitent, wingspan: 68-84mm. Fw: light-colored band/bar extending from light coloured, triangular subreniform spot along am line to costa. Brown, kidney-shaped reniform spot surrounded in pale grey, outlined in black, usually with distinct black along wing veins in a dark area outside the reniform spot. Hw: fringe lightly barred; lighter in color than deeper orange on rest of wing.
Catocala junctura; Joined Underwing; 67-85mm. Fw is usually dark brownish-gray to evenly powdered blue-grey w/o significant markings. Doubled reniform spot often obscure. Thin, slightly darker am and pm lines run from costa to im, not widely spaced at im. Hw salmon/ orange-pink, narrow inner black band turns in sharply, does not meet dark-haired im.
*8788 retecta Grote, 1872 Underwing Moth
* 8780 robinsoni Grote, 1872 Robinson's Underwing
** 8779 serena Serene Underwing; WI/JOD. The head and collar and abdomen are brown while the thorax is grey. The am and pm lines are thin but very dark and distinct on an otherwise drab, almost uniformly olive-grey forewing. The black marginal band of the lower wings is indented at the center, and the relatively narrow, deep yellow median band parallels this indentation. Basal hairs are brown. Catocala serena courtesy of Carroll Rudy.
* 8873 similis Edwards, 1864 Similar Underwing
* 8846 sordida Grote, 1877 Sordid Underwing
** 8857.1 Catocala umbrosa; mm; Double brown am line, inward line fainter, filled with off white; reniform spot brown center outlined in black , off white and black again; subreniform, large, pale brown, closed. Pm line wit htwo elongated upper teeth, next tooth reduced, next two progressively longer, rounded, final lobe rounded and shorter. HW with dark scaling/hairs in basal median area along im
** 8798 Catocala neogama; wingspan 70-85mm. Brown head, thorax, larger size as compared to C. palaeogama. Neogama tend to be slightly smaller than subnata, have darker grey brown fws with more pronounced markings. Examination of hind tibia needed for id. Neogama's: flattened, unevenly, sparsely spined; subnata's: cylindrical, spines dense, uniform in distribution. Joe Garris photo.
** 8806 Catocala parta; Mother Underwing, wingspan: 70-85mm. The black dashes in the basal, subapical and anal areas help to identify this species. The hindwings may be yellow to yellowish-orange but more often are salmon-red. Note the face-head-like markings on the thorax. In the hindwing, the first (nearest the apex) black protrusion into the white fringe is "noticeably" larger than the others.
** 8805 unijuga; Once-married; wingspan: 70-90mm: Catocala unijuga has a fairly wide black inner band (almost reaching inner margin) in hindwing and very distinctive patterning in forewing. Meskei tend to have narrower band and dustier (less distinct) looking forewing. Semirelicta tend to have inner bands that terminate well before inner margins. Also note the very white fringe on both the forewings and hindwings. Carroll Rudy image.
** 8805 unijuga; Once-married; 70-90mm.
Form agatha has a much darker, evenly grey forewing.
Hindwings have some darker hairs in basal area. Note very white fringe on both forewings & hindwings. June to october, willows
Catocala nebulosa; 75-86mm; Moths have prominent dark brown upper-half-basal patch that extends to and ends at antemedial line. Apical area also tends to be brown, much darker than median area but not as dark as basal patch. The anal angle also has the darker brown scaling. The pm line is distinct near costa and inner margin, but becomes weak between the two. It meets inner margin in relative close proximity to am line. Closed subreniform spot is large and connects to the pm line via a thin line.
** 8797 Catocala subnata; Youthful Underwing: 75-90mm. Fws greyish white with blue-grey and light brown scales, usually with hws brighter yellow than those of neogama. Neogama usually have basal dash; absent in male subnata, but present in females. Magnification of hind tibia needed for id: subnata: cylindrical hind tibia; neogama: compressed or flattened hind tibia. subnata: ventral surface of tibia densely covered with evenly distributed spines; neogama: ventral surface of tibia sparsely covered.
** 8804 C. marmorata;
Marbled; wingspan 85-95mm
** 8833 concumbens Sleepy Underwing or Pink Underwing; 60-75mm. This brown thoracic collar is quite evident in this image as is the interruption in the pm line by the open subreniform spot. The white hindwing fringe is only lightly checked on the wing veins. The vibrant pink bans are distinct in colour and also in their relatively smooth contour.
** 8832 Catocala cara; Darling; wingspan 70-85mm. Note deep maroon almost purple cast to fwis, mixed with very pale green. Lower half of am and pm lines is barely visible. No distinctive bars or dashes. The two upper "teeth" on pm line are thin and long. Hw bands are pink. Heavy black checking on off-white hindwing fringe. Relatively thick black median band of hw almost reaches inner margin which is usually heavily adorned with dark hairs. Tim Dyson image.
** 8834 amatrix Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm). Very skittish, frequently hides in caves, under bridges, under tree bark, etc. by day, resting with head down. Hw patterning and colouration similar to that of C. concumbens, but large size (wingspan 75-95mm) and dark bar running from basal area to just below apex distinguishes C. amatrix. See large Catocala amatrix courtesy of Joan F. Rickert.
** 8834 amatrix form selecta
Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
** 8834 amatrix form hesseli
Sweetheart Underwing; (wingspan 75-95mm)
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Return to Main Index
Visit "Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV.
Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list";
ZooKeys 39: 37–83 (2010) by Lawrence F. Gall, David C. Hawks
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