Smerinthini of Venezuela
Updated as per personal communication with María Esperanza Chacín; April 1, 2005
Updated as per Hawkmoths of the World Kitching and Cadiou, 2000; May 2011
Updated as per CATE Sphingidae, 2009; May 17, 2011

Smerinthini of Venezuela:
Adhemarius and Protambulyx

This checklist will become more accurate as images and information are sent to me. If you would like to assist in the development of this worldwide Sphingidae data/image base, please send info and images to Bill Oehlke.

All images I receive remain the property of respective photographers and are credited as such. Data such as wingspan, date, elevation, precise location, etc., is credited to persons who submit same.

I have arranged the images in accordance with my perception of wing characters: predominent markings, shape, colour, size.

There are probably some Venezuelan species not listed below, and there are some species not officially confirmed for Venezuela, although I think they have a good chance of being found there.

All images that I use are credited to respective photographers and those images remain the property of the photographers. Data submissions are also acknowledged.

I hope that over the next twenty years the site can be further refined to allow for the creation of state by state checklists for Venezuela.

Many thanks to those who have already submitted photos and information. The CATE Sphingidae site has been extremely helpful regarding descriptions and determinations. If there are mistakes on this site, they are my own. Bill Oehlke.

Adhemarius gannascus gannascus courtesy of Paolo Mazzei.

Females often have a wing shape or pattern that differs from the males. I hope some day to also have a thumbnail checklist for the females.


Adhemarius gannascus
dark area on basal costa continuous to inner margin
forewing less produced than in dentoni;
dark apical area reduced to thin comma;

Adhemarius daphne
Quite similar to A. gannascus, but in daphne the dark antemedian band does not extend onto the costa
HW post median band also closer to subterminal band in daphne

Adhemarius ypsilon
dark area on lower half of costa
merges with larger area to inner margin;
costa generally devoid of other dark patches except trapezoid near apex

Adhemarius palmeri
large semicircular dark area on costa;
separate from larger, lower dark area;
additional dark patches on costa
oblong dark oval in lower median area

Adhemarius tigrina
no dark area on basal costa;
very similar to sexoculata;
no hw eyespots on veins CUA2, A1
hindwing basal area yellow

Adhemaris sexoculata
no dark area on basal costa;
very similar to tigrina;
six hw eyespots on CuA2, 1A, CuA1
hw basal area pinkish


Protambulyx euryalus
Fw o. m. non-broadening twixt M1/M2
large dark basal marking along fw i. m.
series of drab, olive green-brown, diffuse bars emanating from costa into basal and median areas
hw pml leaves costa obtusely
pale pinkish orange band between o.m. and olive green subparallel band;
Puno, probably throughout Venezuela

P. sulphurea
Similar to Protambulyx ockendeni with narrower and paler wings, and less contrasting pattern. Fw lacks large costal patches and subbasal patch found on i. m. of other French Guiana Protambulyx. Hws: lemon yellow. Narrower dark marginal area compared to goeldii.

Protambulyx eurycles
Fw o. m. broadens inwardly between veins M1/M2 with lobed projections
series of drab, olive green-brown, diffuse bars emanating from costa into basal and median areas
hw pml inwardly concave in upper 1/3
Amazonas, probably throughout Venezuela

Protambulyx goeldii
Fw o. m. broadens inwardly between veins M1/M2 with smooth inner edge;
prominent dark spot at cell apex
prominent greenish brown suffusion along and just below costa;
hw pml almost straight in upper 1/3
lacks hw median line
probably throughout Venezuela

Protambulyx s. strigilis
Fw o. m. non-broadening twixt M1/M2
small basal dot above fw i. m.
markings emanating from costa mostly thin irregular streaks rahter than wider, more diffuse and darker, irregular clouds
hw pml leaves costa at right angle
area between dark outer margin and subparallel dark band is concolourous with rest of forewing, or slightly orangish; hind wing groundcolour seems more orangey than in other Colombian species
throughout Venezuela

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